One of my latest contributions to three.js is a webgl bird flocking example simulated in the GPU. Initially I wanted to sum up my experiences in a blog post of “WebGL, GPGPU, and Flocking”, but that became too difficult to write, and possibly too much to read in a go. So I opt to split them into 3 parts, the first part of flocking in general, and second on WebGL and GPGPU, and the third part to put them all together. So for part 1, we’ll start with flocking.
So what is flocking behavior? From Wikipedia, it is
the behavior exhibited when a group of birds, called a flock, are foraging or in flight. There are parallels with the shoaling behavior of fish, the swarming behavior of insects, and herd behavior of land animals.
So why has flocking behavior has caught my attention along the way? It is an interesting topic technically – simulating such behavior may require intensive computation which poses interesting challenges and solutions. It is also interesting for it use of creating “artificial life” – in games or interactive media, flocking activity can be use to spice up liveliness of the environment. I love it for an additional reason – it exhibits the beauty found in nature. Even if I haven’t have the opportunity to enjoy such displays at lengths in real life, I could easily spend hours watching beautiful flocking videos on youtube or vimeo.
You may have noticed that I’ve used of flocking birds previously in “Boid n Buildings” demo. The code I use for that is based on the version included in the canvas flocking birds example of three.js (which was based on another processing example). A variant of that code which was probably also used for “the wilderness downtown” and “3 dreams of black”.
However, to get closer to the raw metal, one can try to get his hands dirty implementing the flocking algorithm. If you can write a simple particle system already (with attraction and repulsion), its not that difficult to learn about and add the 3 simple rules of flocking
- Separation – steer away from others who are too close
- Alignment – steer towards where others are moving to
- Cohesion – steer towards where others are
I usually find it useful to try something new to me in 2d rather than 3d. It’s easier to debug when things go wrong, and make sure that new concepts are understood. So I started writing a simple 2d implementation with Canvas.
With this 2d exercise done, it would be easier to extend to 3D, and then into the Shaders (GPGPU).
If you are instead looking for guide or tutorial to follow with, you might find that this post isn’t very helpful. Instead, there are many resources, code and tutorials you can probably find online on this topic. With this, I’ll end this part for now, and leave you with a couple of links you can learn more about flocking. The next part in this series would be on WebGL and GPGPU.
http://natureofcode.com/book/chapter-6-autonomous-agents/ Autonomous Agents from Nature of code book.
http://www.red3d.com/cwr/boids/ Craig Reynolds’s page on Boids. He’s responsible for the original program named “Boid” and his original paper from 1987 of “Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model”.
http://icouzin.princeton.edu/iain-couzin-on-wnyc-radiolab/ A really nice talk (video) on collective animal behavior. This was recommended by Robert Hodgin who does fantastic work with flocking behavior too.
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/11/starling-flock/ An article on Wired if you just want something easy to read